Effects of low voltage. When you subject a motor to voltages below the nameplate rating, some of the motor’s characteristics will change slightly and others will change dramatically. To drive a fixed mechanical load connected to the shaft, a motor must draw a fixed amount of power from the line. The amount of power the motor draws has a rough correlation to the voltage 2current (amps). Thus, when voltage gets low, the current must increase to provide the same amount of power. An increase in current is a danger to the motor only if that current exceeds the motor’s nameplate current rating. When amps go above the nameplate rating, heat begins to build up in the motor. Without a timely correction, this heat will damage the motor. The more heat and the longer the exposure to it, the more damage to the motor.
For example, a 10% voltage decrease would cause a 10% amperage increase. This would not damage the motor, if the current stays below the nameplate value.